Common faults and treatment methods for turbocharger of automobile engine
The engine exhaust gas turbocharger (hereinafter referred to as the automobile turbocharger) is a device that is widely used in precision, engineering machinery, generators and other power devices, without changing the basic structure of the diesel engine, the supercharger can increase the power of 30% or more, the fuel consumption is reduced by about 5%, received very good economic benefits. However, due to improper installation and improper use, the supercharger is not able to achieve the desired effect. Now, based on the structure principle of turbocharger, it analyzes the common failures of turbocharger.
The use of exhaust gas turbocharger is discharged in the exhaust pipe, driving the turbine rotating speed, the rotor shaft drives the compressor impeller rotating speed, the speed can be as high as 50000 ~ 230000r/min, the high-speed rotation of the impeller sucked air pressure, the air entering a cylinder density increases greatly, improve the power of diesel engine. Turbocharger is an important machine used to improve engine power and reduce exhaust emissions. Because of improper use, maintenance and maintenance, it is easy to fail, which causes the engine to not work properly. In this paper, some common faults and treatment methods of turbocharger are introduced as follows:
1 、turbocharger oil leakage
Phenomenon: the oil consumption is large, but the normal exhaust smoke color, power is not reduced.
Reason: This is usually caused by oil leakage.
(1) first, check the oil leakage of the outer tubing of the engine lubrication system (including the inlet of the turbocharger and the oil pipe).
(2) check whether there is oil in the exhaust exhaust outlet of the turbocharger. If there is oil, it can be judged that the seal ring of one end of the turbine should be damaged, and the seal ring should be replaced.
Phenomenon two: oil consumption, exhaust take the blue smoke, but the power is not decreased.
The reason: because of the oil leakage at the pressure end of the turbocharger, the oil is burned through the engine intake pipe into the combustion chamber, and there are several possibilities:
(1) the turbocharger is not smooth, and the oil is too much in the middle support of the rotor assembly and flows into the compressor impeller along the rotor shaft.
(2) close to the seal ring or the oil ring at the end of the compressor impeller, the oil enters into the impeller chamber and then enters the combustion chamber with the air after the pressurized air inside the chamber.
(1) open the outlet of the compressor or the intake pipe of the engine (rubber hose) to see whether the pipe and the wall of the pipe adhere to the oil. If yes, please check whether the turbocharger is unblocked. If unimpeded is due to excessive oil accumulation in the middle support, the oil pipe should be dredged after it is dredged.
(2) if it is unimpeded, it is due to the damage of the seal ring or oil shedding ring at one end of the impeller, and the supercharger should be disintegrated to repair it.
Phenomenon three: oil consumption, exhaust take the blue smoke or black smoke, and power down.
(1) the clearance between the piston and the cylinder is too large, and the oil moves into the combustion chamber and is burned out.
(2) in the process of air being inhaled by the supercharger, the air flow meets the greater resistance. (such as blockage of air filter element, suction and deformation or flattening of inlet hose), low pressure at the inlet of compressor, causing oil leakage to enter the compressor and burning with compressed air into the combustion chamber.
(1) check whether there is oil in the direct tube wall of the intake air or whether it is flatted or not, so that the air flow is blocked or the air filter core is blocked.
(2) if the pipe and pipe wall have oil, the air filter should be cleaned or replaced.
2 metal friction sound
Phenomenon: exhaust smoke, power decline, and the supercharger has a different noise.
(1) if there is a metal friction sound, it is the excessive wear of the turbocharger rotor bearing or thrust bearing, and the friction between the impeller and the turbocharger shell is produced.
(2) if it is not the metal friction noise, but the airflow sound, it is due to the rotating sound generated by the high speed rotor of the supercharger, or the leakage phenomenon caused by bad connection at the inlet and exhaust interface.
(1) the former should be repaired by replacing damaged spare parts depending on the condition of wear.
(2) the latter should be carefully divided and targeted.
3 turbocharger bearing damage
Phenomenon: the turbocharger bearing is damaged, the engine power is reduced, the oil consumption is high, and the black smoke is taken, and the supercharger can not work when it is serious.
(1) insufficient pressure and flow of lubricating oil.
The oil supply of the A. turbocharger shaft neck and thrust bearing is insufficient.
B. makes the lubricating oil of the rotor journal and bearing floating between the bearings insufficient;
The C. supercharger has been running at high speed, and the lubricating oil is not supplied in time.
(2) the inclusion or sediment enters the lubrication system.
(3) the oil is oxidized and metamorphosed.
A. diesel engine oil overheating, excessive gas from the piston and cylinder wall between the crossing;
B. cooling water leak into the oil;
C. oil is not used properly, and the oil is not replaced regularly.
(1) check whether the lubricating oil pressure is normal and whether the oil quantity meets the requirements.
(2) to replace the lubricating oil regularly and to ensure the cleanliness of the lubricating oil as required.
(3) in strict accordance with the requirements, the use of lubricating oil shall not be mixed.
(4) the engine should be avoided working at high temperature, and the normal working temperature of the engine should be kept.
In the case of the above phenomenon, the turbocharger should be dismantled and the corresponding parts should be replaced. When the turbocharger is found to leak oil, it is necessary to check whether the turbocharger return pipe and the diesel engine ventilation pipe are blocked, and the oil cooler is working properly. When the oil is found to be oily, the oil and the oil filter should be replaced immediately in accordance with the regulations. Only this is the case.